Abstract：Multi-stage delay stacked source is advanced for seismic data acquisition in thick loess area. However, using a mechanical striker or a screw-type detonating tube to delay the explosion of seismic sources, there are many problems, such as low accuracy of time delay, high cost, complex structure and low efficiency. Although such delay can be achieved by using an advanced electronic detonator, it has not been widely used because of high cost. In this paper, we introduce a method of controlling the delayed explosion of seismic sources using an electronic delay technology, and give the schematic of the control circuit on the surface (referred to as a high-voltage encoder) and the delay circuit under the ground (referred to as a delayer). It is a new type of explosion system controlled by a multi-stage seismic source circuit. Taking the exploration project in Shanxi Province, we tested the system. The results show that the system can stably control three explosive columns to detonate from top to bottom accurately. The distance between the explosive columns is 1.7m, and the detonating time differs by 3ms. Keeping hole depth, charge size, receiver patch and folds constant, from the point of shot static correction record, the effective reflection energy of vertical delay three-magnitude source is strong than that of plane three-combination source in, the frequency band of the former is wider, the surface wave of the former is weaker and the exploration cost of the former is lower than the latter; from the point of seismic time section, the effective reflection energy and frequency band of vertical delay three-magnitude seismic source are equivalent to plane five-combination seismic source，and the cost of the former is reduced by about 70% to 80% on the latter. The multi-stage delay stacking method is useful for exploring coal and oil resources in the thick loess area.
吕公河, 张庆淮, 段卫星, 等.黄土塬地区地震勘探采集技术[J].石油物探, 2001, 40(2):84-91.LYU Gonghe, ZHANG Qinghuai, DUAN Weixing, et al.Seismic acquisition in loess yuan areas[J].Geo-physical Prospecting for Petroleum, 2001, 40(2):84-91.
赵秋芳, 云美厚, 朱丽波, 等.近地表Q值测试方法研究进展与展望[J].石油地球物理勘探, 2019, 54(6):1397-1418.ZHAO Qiufang, YUN Meihou, ZHULibo, et al.Pro-gressand outlook of near-surface quality factor Q measurement and inversion[J].Oil Geophysical Pros-pecting, 2019, 54(6):1397-1418.
陈伟, 李霞, 李红敬, 等.油气地球物理技术进展[J].科学技术与工程, 2020, 20(4):1289-1301.CHEN Wei, LIXia, LI Hongjing, et al.Progress in petroleum geophysical exploration technology[J]. Science Technology and Engineering, 2020, 20(4):1289-1301.
胡立新, 杨德宽, 何兵寿, 等.延迟爆炸法的理论分析[J].石油地球物理勘探, 2002, 37(1):33-38.HU Lixin, YANG Dekuan, HE Bingshou, et al.Theo-retic analysis of delayed blast[J].Oil Geophysical Prospecting, 2002, 37(1):33-38.
李文彬, 王晓鸣, 赵国志, 等.高分辨率地震勘探的垂向叠加震源研究[J].南京理工大学学报(自然科学版), 2002, 26(1):44-47.LI Wenbin, WANG Xiaoming, ZHAO Guozhi, et al.Study of superimposed seismic source in vertical di-rection on high distinguishability exploration[J]. Journal of Nanjing University of Science and Tech-nology, 2002, 26(1):44-47.
徐淑合, 于静, 胡立新, 等.多级延迟爆炸震源的研究与应用[J]. 石油地球物理勘探, 2003, 38(4):341-349.XU Shuhe, YU Jing, HU Lixin, et al.Research and application of multistage delay explosion source[J]. Oil Geophysical Prospecting, 2003, 38(4):341-349.
于世焕, 丁伟, 徐淑合, 等.延迟震源技术在三维高分辨率地震勘探中的应用[J].石油物探, 2004, 43(2):111-115.YU Shihuan, DING Wei, XU Shuhe, et al.Delayed blast technology and its application in 3D high resolu-tion seismic prospecting[J].Geophysical Prospecting for Petroleum, 2004, 43(2):111-115.
谭绍泉, 徐锦玺, 何京国, 等.官1地区高分辨率地震采集技术[J].石油物探, 2005, 44(6):636-639.TAN Shaoquan, XU Jinxi, HE Jingguo, et al.The high-resolution seismic acquisition and applications in Guan 1 area[J].Geophysical Prospecting for Petro-leum, 2005, 44(6):636-639.
黄文尧, 颜事龙, 吕淑然, 等.低爆速细长震源药柱的研究与应用[J].爆破器材, 2005, 34(4):18-22.HUANG Wenyao, YAN Shilong, LYU Shuran, et al. The research and application of the low detonation ve-locity and elongated source charge[J].Explosive Ma-terials, 2005, 34(4):18-22.
陈健.陆上石油地震勘探炸药震源研究进展[J].科技导报, 2013, 31(25):68-74.CHEN Jian.Progress of explosive source for land pe-troleum seismic exploration[J].Science & Technolo-gy Review, 2013, 31(25):68-74.
钟晓玲, 于真, 李霞.一种功能齐全的高可靠性雷管引爆执行电路设计[J].煤炭技术, 2010, 29(8):40-41.ZHONG Xiaoling, YU Zhen, LI Xia.A design of full-featured highly reliable implementing circuit for detonator initiation[J].Coal Technology, 2010, 29(8):40-41.
王晓云.基于MSP430F1232电雷管发爆器的电路设计[J].现代电子技术, 2015, 38(14):133-136.WANG Xiaoyun.Circuit design of electric detonator exploder based on MSP430F1232[J].Modern Elec-tronics Technique, 2015, 38(14):133-136.
张文, 陈勇, 周志才.地震延迟叠加激发的药距选择[J].天然气工业, 2008, 28(1):70-72.ZHANG Wen, CHEN Yong, ZHOU Zhicai.Charge interval choice for delay stacked shooting[J].Natural Gas Industry, 2008, 28(1):70-72.
宋玉龙, 吕公河, 王新红, 等.垂向叠加震源冲击波激发地震波的能量分析[J].石油地球物理勘探, 2004, 39(4):371-374.SONG Yulong, LYU Gonghe, WANG Xinhong, et al. Analysis of seismic energy produced by shock wave of vertical stack source[J].Oil Geophysical Prospec-ting, 2004, 39(4):371-374.
周家雄, 胡高伟, 邓勇, 等.利用地震成藏学研究断陷湖盆油气成藏关键要素[J].石油地球物理勘探, 2019, 54(5):1141-1150.ZHOU Jiaxiong, HU Gaowei, DENG Yong, etal. A study of factors of hydrocarbon accumulationin a faulted basin based on petroleum-accumulation seis-mology[J]. Oil Geophysical Prospecting, 2019, 54(5):1141-1150.